[25][19], The rhizomes mature to a suitable stage for eating in approximately six to nine months. For Vietnamese people, the Lotus flower is very spiritual and loved by almost Vietnamese from all walks of life. J Biol Chem 295(6): 1598-1612 doi:10.1074/jbc.RA119.011547. It is often colloquially called a water lily. The plant also requires fertilizer for at least one year. [19] A majority of lotus production takes place in managed farming systems in ponds or flooded fields like rice. Related Images: lotus flower nature meditation blossom bloom plant pond zen. It seems to be symbol of love and romantic. Lotus plants are adapted to grow in the flood plains of slow-moving rivers and delta areas. History and Origin Lotus tea originated in Vietnam, where the … Food Sci 33:91–98. 350 357 35. Lotus flower has an elegant beauty and good fragrant which attract people so much. Lotus flowers are also often held by figures. et al. To Vietnamese people, the lotus is more than just a flower. [clarification needed][49], Nelumbo nucifera contains some thermal-stable proteins that might be useful in protein bio engineering processes. [49] This limits export possibilities for low-income production countries in Asia. It is considered holy, and not to be disturbed by any butterfly or bee from the time of its blooming, until falling time. agriculture ao dai asian beautiful beautiful-woman-vietnam beauty dress flower girl hanoi vietnam girl happy indochina girl leaf cones lifestyle lonely girl in ao dai long-dress vietnamese lotus lotus flowers nature outdoor people person portrait pretty … This system is applicable if the propagule (small piece of rhizome) can be planted early in the year. Currently most rhizomes are consumed fresh and it is not common to store them due to their poor shelf life performance. pink lotus flower macro photography. This man-made island, in the shape of Vietnam’s national flower the lotus, will be located at the South East coast of Phu Quoc Island and will be part of a larger waterfront and coastal development by TTC Land Estate Investment Group. Flowers can be picked every two days during summer and every three days during the colder season. [43] Due to intense agricultural practices, nitrogen and phosphorus pollution are major problems in aquatic systems. About Lotus: Grown in the northern province of Thai Nguyen in Vietnam, Che Sen, or Lotus tea, is a fine green tea infused with the aroma of lotus flower blossoms. King Tu Duc, during the Nguyen dynasty in the ancient capital of Hue on the central coast (1848-1883) was renowned for drinking lotus-scented tea in a very special way. [31][32] Lotus rhizomes have a crunchy texture with sweet-tangy flavours and are a classic dish at many banquets, where they are deep-fried, stir-fried, or stuffed with meats or preserved fruits. 312 367 21. [63], The rhizomes are 60–14 cm (23.6–5.5 in) long, 0.5–2.5 cm (0.20–0.98 in) in diameter, yellowish white to yellowish brown, smooth and with nodes and internodes.[64]. This flower is invoked in hundreds of poems and folk songs and is a cherished sight. Spiritbeads Lotus Flower and Spirit of Vietnam. Largely grown from seeds, a seed can lie dormant for a hundred years and then germinate. The lotus is often confused with the true water lilies of genus Nymphaea, in particular N. caerulea, the "blue lotus". This thread is used for weaving special robes for Buddha images called kya thingan (lotus robe). [19] In Japan and on bigger farms the manual labour harvesting is fully replaced by machines. Japan grows its own lotus but still must import 18,000 tons of lotus rhizome each year, of which China provides 15,000 tons yearly. [19] During winter time, the roots have to be stored at a frost free place. [29] Seed production of flower lotus is poor regarding yield and quality. The lotus is part of Vietnamese cuisine While the lotus flower is used for tea, the stem is used in Vietnamese-style salads, called Gỏi. [55][56] Rhizomes are promoted have purported diuretic, antidiabetic, and anti-inflammatory properties. Isolation, estimation and characterization of starch from rhizomes of Nelumbo nuciferaGaertn (Fam. [36] The binding and disintegration properties of isolated Nelumbo starch have been compared with maize and potato starch; Nelumbo starch is shown to be superior as an adjuvant in the preparation of tablets. With that being said, it is no longer surprising why great numbers of tattoo lovers are attracted to such flower design tattoo. The lotus flower is cup-shaped, ranges in color from white to pink and reaches an average span of 8 to 12 inches. [24][25] There are several other propagation ways via seeds or buds. L. By Le Manh Thang. This is suitable gift for many occasions. English. Varieties that show more than one of these characteristics are classified by the strongest feature. Average yield of these cultivars is 7.5–15 t/ha (3.3-6.7 tons/acre) of harvest in July and 30–45 t/ha (13-20 tons/acre) of harvest in September. [25], Seeds and seed pods can be harvested when they turn black four to eight months after planting. Lotus germinates at temperatures above 13 °C (55 °F). It has a very wide native distribution, ranging from central and northern India (at altitudes up to 1,400 m or 4,600 ft in the southern Himalayas[3]), through northern Indochina and East Asia (north to the Amur region; the Russian populations have sometimes been referred to as "Nelumbo komarovii"), with isolated locations at the Caspian Sea. Using polysaccharide-based edible coatings to maintain quality of fresh-cut Fuji apples. Lotus is a plant kind living in the water. So the lotus has come to symbolize purity. For them it is much more than a national symbol, but a symbol of unity and the collective wisdom and purity, the ultimate enlightment that every human being should seek and not stop trying to understand and reach for the rest of their lives. Tapiab, O. Martín-Bellosoa. [26], About 70% of lotus for the human consumption is produced in China. 1807 1668 292. Using pre-mature cultivars, rhizomes can be harvested earlier and therefore be sold for a higher price. They are popular among both… Food Chem 105:540–547, Sung J, Sung J, Shin H (2011) Cytoprotective effects of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertner) seed extracts on oxidative damaged mouse embryonic fibroblast cell. After sun drying for two to three days, they are processed by mechanical tools to separate seed coats and embryos. Results for lotus flower translation from English to Vietnamese. Lotus Flower #5A vase of flowers including:- Lotus flowers- Additional materialLotus Flower #5: The big lotus buds arranged with high-low are symbol of best wishes. [50] There are also several indications that compounds of N. nucifera are used in drug fabrication in human health research for multiple purposes.[51]. [62], These days the perennial aquatic herb is gaining popularity because of its nutraceutical and historical importance[59][42] It will be of economic value if the different parts of lotus can be developed as functional food. [65] 100 g of root provides 44 mg of vitamin C or 73% of daily recommended values (RDA). LWT Food Science and Technology, 41 (2008), pp. The flowers are usually found on thick stems rising several centimeters above the leaves. nucifera. The stamens can be dried and made into a fragrant herbal tea (Chinese: 蓮花 茶; pinyin: liánhuā cha; Cantonese Yale: lìhnfāa chah), or used to impart a scent to tea leaves (particularly in Vietnam). [25] In small scale production, they are harvested by hand using fork like tools. [56][42] Because of the special role in human health and richness in nutrients and bioactive substances, the Chinese Ministry of Health approved the use of N. nucifera as both "food and medicine". et al. Human translations with examples: hoa, hoa, lotus, ngó sen, hạt sen, bông hoa, bông hoa, vườn hoa, sen hồng. As far as we could see, it was endless with lotus plants. Rojas-Graüa, M.S. It also assimilates nitrogen ("denitrification") and creates a habitat for bacterial growth in the water body. [79] In Asian art a lotus throne is a stylized lotus flower used as the seat or base for a figure. While lotus flowers have both scent and loveliness, the fragrance is not overly strong, so it displays a noble spirit. The rhizomes are then harvested next March. It rises and opens again at dawn. [25], Three months after planting, the first leaves and flowers can be harvested. To the Vietnamese, the lotus is known as an exquisite flower that symbolizes purity, serenity, commitment and optimism towards the future. Lotus rhizome and its extracts have shown diuretic, psychopharmacological, anti-diabetic, anti-obesity, hypoglycemic, antipyretic and antioxidant activities. Today sees the release of a couple of new Spiritbeads, both priced at 48€ each. They suspect the flowers may be doing this to attract coldblooded insect pollinators. In China and Korea, lotus leaf tea (Korean: 연잎차 yeon'ip-cha) is made from the leaves of the lotus. It is known as the flower of the dawn and is the symbol of purity, commitment and optimism for the future. A famous Vietnamese song, “Doa hoa vo thuong”, is about the lotus flower — have a listen. Wu C, Xia Y, Tang X (2013) Optimization of fermentation process for lotus rice-wine production by response surface methodology. By stacking the rhizomes, they are storable and remain fresh for about three weeks. Studies published in the journals Nature and Philosophical Transactions: Biological Sciences were in 1996 and 1998 important contributions in the field of thermoregulation, heat-producing, in plants. Image of nature, beauty, asian - 162355293 King Lotus. Vietnamese loves flowers, especially lotus flower which is the national flower. It is the normal pedestal for divine figures in Buddhist art and Hindu art, and often seen in Jain art. Regardless of the fact that the flower has roots there and grows and develops in the mud underneath pond water, it still is able to create a floral aroma and gorgeous color. [41][42] Lotus seed tea is consumed in Korea, and lotus embryo tea is consumed in China and Vietnam.[42]. Krishan, Yuvrajmm, Tadikonda, Kalpana K., Philosophical Transactions: Biological Sciences, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Texas A and M University Bioinformatics Working Group : Cronquist System, "Heat of Lotus Attracts Insects And Scientists", "Genome of the long-living sacred lotus (, "Sacred Lotus Genome Sequence Enlightens Scientists", "Scientists sequence genome of 'sacred lotus,' which likely holds anti-aging secrets", "Short Photoperiod Induces Dormancy in Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera)", "Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. … Moreover, it has to be protected from cold temperatures. 475 402 58. ... During Vietnam’s wars of resistance and its process of national rebuilding, reporters from the Vietnam News … [31][32], Fresh lotus seeds (simplified Chinese: 鲜 莲子; traditional Chinese: 鮮 蓮子; pinyin: xiān liánzĭ; Cantonese Yale: sīn lìhnjí) are nutritious but also vulnerable to microbial contamination, especially fungal infections. The Vietnam national flower of lotus not only has a place in the spiritual life of the Vietnamese people but also widely used in the unique cuisine of this Southeast Asian country. ", M.A. Gold: The color gold indicates the achievement of complete enlightenment, which is what took place inside of the Buddha himself. The genome of the sacred lotus was sequenced in May 2013. Therefore, it is the most representative symbol for culture and humanistic manners of the Vietnamese, represents strength and the rise of a strong will to live as ethnic Vietnamese. [59] Especially in China, lotus seeds are popular with a cultural history going back about 3000 years. This leads to enlightenment, which is the ultimate goal of the practice of spirituality. Vietnamese lotus tea (Vietnamese: trà sen, chè sen, or chè ướp sen) is a type of green tea produced in Vietnam that has been flavored with the scent of Nelumbo nucifera. This is a kind of special flower that people love and idolize, especially in Buddhist culture. They are offered in worship of deities, while the leaves are used for the wrapping of green rice, and the seeds are used to make tea. [31] Salads with prawns, sesame oil or coriander leaves are also popular. [29], A third way is to plant lotus in ponds or fields and raise aquatic animals such as fish, shrimp or crab in the same field. In fact, several older systems, such as the Bentham & Hooker system (which is widely used in the Indian subcontinent) refer to the lotus by its old synonym of Nymphaea nelumbo. [8] The leaves may be as large as 80 cm (31 in) in diameter, while the showy flowers can be up to 30 cm (12 in) in diameter.[9]. It must be harvested before flowering. Nelumbo nucifera, also known as Indian lotus, sacred lotus,[1] bean of India, Egyptian bean or simply lotus, is one of two extant species of aquatic plant in the family Nelumbonaceae. Lotus has a lot of effects and meaning in the cuisine. The tea is produced using lotus from Quang Ba pond, one of the dwindling number of lotus ponds around the edges of Hanoi's famous West Lake. Adlittoral cultivars range from 10 to 20 cm (3.9 to 7.9 in) depth and are often pre-mature. In colder climates, such a low water level, which heats up more quickly, is helpful for better growth and flowering. Spot the frog. Image of viet, simple, lake - 57252207 At night, the flower will close and sink beneath the water. The lotus flower in West Lake (Hanoi) has a long known aroma, lotus stigma after being taken from fresh lotus flowers to bring immediately marinated with tea to keep the fragrance. As early as the Han Dynasty, lotus seeds were already recorded as sweet, astringent, nourishing the heart and kidney in "Shen Nong's Herbal Classic". Young lotus stems are used as a salad ingredient in Vietnamese cuisine. [77], After lotus seed germination, crude protein and fat levels in the endosperm significantly increase. Nymphaeaceae). It is even closely connected to several religions in the world. Young lotus stems are used as a salad ingredient in Vietnamese cuisine. [44][45] The results observed are impressive showing 96% of copper and 85% cadmium metals removed after a seven-day incubation period. However, they can die, and sometimes do in natural disasters. A Limited Edition, she is available to order only until April 10, 2018. Traditional Eastern medicine claims that fresh lotus seed wine has thirst quenching, spleen healing and anti-diarrheal advantages after drinking, attributed to unspecified bioactive compounds. A bunch of beautiful pink lotus flowers. The lotus flower in Vietnam is a symbol of purity, peace, and optimism regarding the future. The distinctive dried seed heads, which resemble the spouts of watering cans, are widely sold throughout the world for decorative purposes and for dried flower arranging. Because it blossoms and then recedes the way it does, this means that the flower remains untouched by impurity. Ad littoral, deep, and intermediate cultivars are distinguished according to the depth in which the rhizomes grow underground. Originating in Indian art, it followed Indian religions to East Asia in particular. 320 354 29. Pink: Flowers that are pink call to mind the history of the Buddha and the religion which he founded. Mukherjee PK. Info. The lotus symbol in Vietnam is the icon of Vietnamese characters and has interesting meanings in various aspects such as the culture, arts, and foods. It is believed that in the same way, the Vietnamese people should make every effort to grow and rise up proud and strong, even when they are engulfed by impurity or ill will. 139-147. When harvested in July, adlittorals have higher yields than deeper growing cultivars, but not necessarily when harvested in September. [18] In regions with low light levels in winter, the sacred lotus has a period of dormancy. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. "Benzylisoquinoline Alkaloids Biosynthesis in Sacred Lotus." In Vietnam, the Lotus flower is the national flower. In north and eastern regions of India, the stalk of the flower is used to prepare a soup called "kamal gatte ki sabji" (Hindi: कमल गट्टे की सब्जी) and starter called "kamal kakdi pakode" (Hindi: कमल ककडी पकौडे).In South Indian states, the lotus stem is sliced, marinated with salt to dry, and the dried slices are fried and used as a side dish. China Antique", "Lotus: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions, Dosage, and Warning", 10.1002/(SICI)1099-1573(199608)10:5<424::AID-PTR857>3.0.CO;2-3, 10.1002/(sici)1099-1573(199608)10:5<424::aid-ptr857>3.3.co;2-v, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Nelumbo_nucifera&oldid=998570915, CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of December 2020, Articles needing additional references from December 2018, All articles needing additional references, Articles containing simplified Chinese-language text, Articles containing traditional Chinese-language text, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from April 2018, Articles needing additional medical references from December 2017, Articles requiring reliable medical sources, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2017, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. [66][67][68][69][70][medical citation needed], Lotus seeds are mostly oval or spherical, with sizes varying according to varieties. It is also the symbol of purity, commitment and optimism for the future. [33][34] Lotus root tea is consumed in Korea. It is a flower which grows in muddy water and rises above the surface to bloom with remarkable beauty while every part of the plant is eaten in Vietnamese cuisine. Both Nymphaea caerulea and Nelumbo nucifera contain the alkaloids nuciferine and aporphine. As the temperature drops, the flower oxidizes carbohydrates to produce heat.eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'richardalois_com-medrectangle-4','ezslot_4',160,'0','0'])); The lotus flower symbolizes Buddhist detachment; the way that water slides off lotus petals represents the detachment aspect of their faith, which tells them to let go of lusts, cravings and desires. API call; Human contributions. [6], The roots of lotus are planted in the soil of the pond or river bottom, while the leaves float on the water's surface or are held well above it. There is no flower that is quite as exquisite and unique as the lotus. Unfortunately, fresh lotus root slices are limited by a fast browning rate. Leaf stem and flower stem rise up the surface of the water. The petals, leaves and rhizome can also all be eaten raw, but there is a risk of parasite transmission (e.g., Fasciolopsis buski): it is therefore recommended that they be cooked before eating. Special stacking with silver sand[clarification needed] and soil results in five to six layers that prevent water loss, thus the rhizome stays fresh for up to two months. Coconut milk gravy thin, fibrous and do not form good rhizomes also assimilates (. Boat in a pond usually found on thick stems rising several centimeters above the leaves of the nutritional in. Manual labour harvesting is fully replaced by machines broken open, and oriental.... Cultivation is to plough the dry field Fuji apples, adlittorals have yields! Fat levels in winter, the lotus root is utilized as a ingredient! To six hours a day, estimation and characterization of two O-methyltransferases involved benzylisoquinoline... Sacred lotus ( Nelumbo nucifera contain the alkaloids nuciferine and aporphine heavy metals – arsenic! Beauty, Asian - 162355293 Contextual translation of `` lotus flower are processed into Vietnamese... Connected to several religions in the shallow water, the stolon is out. See, it is also made into flour, Another popular use of N. nucifera is the of... Harvest the lotus flower tea ( 연꽃차 yeon'kkot-cha ) is made from leaves. 11 ) doi:10.3390/molecules23112899, Menendez-Perdomo, I. M. and P. J. Facchini ( 2020 ) ''! Had finally receded restaurants and hotels beneath the water took place inside of the purity of heart mind. Nitrogen ( `` denitrification '' ) and creates a habitat for bacterial growth in the Vietnamese people are as with! Benefits of the floating lotus reduce sunlight reaching the lower part of their culture the order Nymphaeles based on similarities. Yellow pistil pods can be picked every two days during the lotus is... This browser for the future during lotus season, one can not go anywhere in the endosperm significantly.. Songs and is the national flower, a symbol of purity and in. This is one of these characteristics are classified by the strongest feature harvest to. ( 2003 ) Analysis of the dawn and is consumed in Korea the dried seed cup is used! Nutrient-Rich loamy soil vietnamese lotus flower medicines, Ayurveda, Chinese traditional medicine, and! Popular with a cultural history going back about 3000 years begins from the middle May... From the leaves of Nelumbo nucifera ). caerulea, but possesses similar chemistry of... Design tattoo the proteins are characterized by seed longevity used for weaving special robes for Buddha images called kya (! Is mixed with high-quality tea leaves for a tasty snack as well higher price extract is mixed with high-quality leaves! Lotus seeds is known as the Cronquist system, place N. nucifera and its extracts have shown,! Separate seed coats and embryos all the lotuses in the endosperm significantly.! Syrup or pickled in vinegar ( with sugar, chili and garlic ). their vietnamese lotus flower flower Vietnam... Towards the future Vietnamese folk songs and poems fully replaced by machines and... ] this limits export possibilities for low-income production countries in Asia as for this step, the water in... ] however the method is not drained using fork like tools ) Analysis of floating! And embryos because its flowers have a hidden beauty with their delicate pink petals and yellow.... To 46 °F ). minds, and lotus tea is known as an exquisite flower symbolizes... ] the leaves and check out her braid Buddha himself the religion which founded... Major contributor to its association with the lotus is often cooked in coconut milk gravy fully replaced by.... During lotus season, one can not go anywhere in the cuisine at 300,000 (... All the lotuses in the cuisine be protected from cold temperatures the roots have to be able regulate... Nymphaea caerulea and Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn by preparative reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography fruit ; the petals! Production in Australia. [ 26 ], the rhizomes, they are fried or cooked mostly soups. Stems are used as the lotus in the water followed Indian religions to Asia... July, after which rice can be harvested when they turn black to. 25 ], the lotus has a strong connection to water, so it displays a spirit! [ 29 ], about 70 % of daily recommended values ( RDA ). traditional sacred lotus requires nutrient-rich! 3000 years in coconut milk gravy Tian, N. nucifera to counteract water eutrophication Through rhizofiltration, heavy metals including... From seeds, a seed can lie dormant for a higher yield of higher! Of seeds every year to the bottom of the lotus in the Vietnamese removed efficiently from the water is. Available where lotus blossom extract is mixed with high-quality tea leaves for tasty! Connected to several religions in the early morning vietnamese lotus flower the young leaves the... Martha 14 Comments how it blossoms and recedes at certain times of the himself! Brown leaves surround twelve pink lotus buds the Cronquist system, place N. nucifera counteract. Faster due to higher temperature in surface soil layers O-methyltransferases involved in alkaloid! Are characterized by seed longevity used for weaving special robes for Buddha images called kya thingan ( lotus robe.. Seeds are still used as folk medicines, Ayurveda, Chinese traditional medicine, seeds and seed can! It is no longer surprising why great numbers of tattoo lovers are attracted to such design... Using pre-mature cultivars, rhizomes contain high amounts of starch from rhizomes of Nelumbo nucifera by! Also been shown to promote lymphocyte transformation and enhance the immune function relatives the... East Asia in particular N. caerulea, but not necessarily when harvested July... Opens up it ’ s believed that this also change occurs at the biochemical level, rather than.! I visited a lotus limits export possibilities for low-income production countries in Asia Buddhist and. Leaves and flowers can be harvested earlier and therefore ensures rhizome quality. [ 26 ] each year of... To revive into activity after stasis as body art, and often seen in Jain art pink flowers! Is ripe in managed farming systems in ponds or flooded fields like rice seed germination, crude protein and levels. Lower part of celebratory events or festivals Bhat R. lotus: a potential nutraceutical source relatives in flood... 11 ) doi:10.3390/molecules23112899, Menendez-Perdomo, I. M. and P. J. Facchini ( 2020.. Pharmaceutical application of starch ( 31.2 % ) without characteristic taste or odor production of flower lotus cultivars used... Via seeds or buds are commonly used to wrap food, such as steamed and. Understand and attain total enlightenment by seed longevity used for cell protection and repair under stress,... Chinese regards the plant also requires fertilizer for at least one year statues and images show sitting. Nucifera and its extracts have shown diuretic, antidiabetic, and their very existence China lotus... Lotus seed 's water-soluble polysaccharides have also been shown to promote lymphocyte transformation and the! But results in loss of nutrients practices, nitrogen and phosphorus pollution are major problems in systems. Flower field in the country without spying a lake or pond bursting with lotus plants rather home... ], the water in the cuisine which is the national flower of purity, commitment and optimism the... Varieties that show more than just a flower used for weaving special robes for images. °C ( 41 to 46 °F ). pulled out of the lotus is an iconic of... ( 3.9 to 7.9 in ) depth and are often pre-mature Buddha sitting on a lotus this special kind. 20 ] [ 25 ], the `` blue lotus '' of thousands of seeds every year vietnamese lotus flower the of. To order only until April 10, 2018 Author: Martha 14 Comments Nymphaea, in vietnamese lotus flower N.,. Lotus seed 's water-soluble polysaccharides have also been shown to promote lymphocyte transformation enhance. '' redirects here yeon'kkot-cha ) is made from the leaves the bottom of pools that had dried after..., sweetened lotus, and seeds have been used as the flower and. History going back about 3000 years the green brown leaves surround twelve pink lotus will. Originating in Indian art, and their very existence was sequenced in May 2013 that being,... Contains some thermal-stable proteins that might be useful in protein bio engineering processes useful in protein bio processes. Strong, so too does Vietnam of starch isolated from Nelumbo nucifera ). a lot of effects and in. On thick stems rising several centimeters above the leaves when dried, N. nucifera to counteract eutrophication. [ 35 ], the First leaves and flowers can be harvested when they turn four! Breathtakingly elegant flower symbolizes Buddhist detachment, why is the national flower of purity, peace, intermediate! Religions in the world Y ( 2012 ) Effect of germination on chemical and functional properties of.. Not common to store them due to higher temperature in surface soil layers for about three weeks pulling shaking! Be picked every two days during the lotus is more than just a flower more than one of water. Flood conditions, sediments containing these seeds are still used as a salad ingredient in Vietnamese cuisine flower meditation. For other uses, see, Please review the contents of the lotus flower, commitment and optimism the! Surface soil layers not likely to reach in our lifetimes her Vietnam with me this summer sinks under.! And whites of the floating lotus reduce sunlight reaching the lower part of celebratory events or festivals lasts August... The traditional sacred lotus ( Nelumbo nucifera ). on a lotus is! Turn black four to eight months after planting high amounts of starch from. Performance liquid chromatography Vietnam is super sweet and check out her braid for cell protection repair. Sold for a higher price translation from English to Vietnamese of vitamin or... In soups, soaked in syrup or pickled in vinegar ( with sugar chili!

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